- Mars once had water bodies, but they disappeared about 3.5 billion years ago.
- The loss of Mars’ global magnetic field caused this disappearance, exposing its atmosphere to the solar wind.
- The planet’s small size played a crucial role in its inability to retain water over time.
- A study using Mars meteorites found that Mars lost more volatile elements during its formation compared to Earth.
- Understanding these factors aids in searching for habitable planets beyond our solar system.
In the annals of planetary habitability, Mars may offer a fundamental lesson. New research proposes that Mars’ diminutive size sealed its fate, leading to the vanishing act of its water bodies.
The history gleaned from NASA’s exploratory rovers, like Curiosity and Perseverance, confirms a watery past on Mars. Once adorned with lakes, rivers, and a potential vast ocean, the planet underwent a drastic transformation roughly 3.5 billion years ago. This shift coincided with the loss of Mars’ protective global magnetic field, leaving it vulnerable to the solar wind’s erosive effects.
While the absence of the magnetic shield triggered this water loss, a deeper issue underlines Mars’ plight. The planet’s size, the new study argues, dictated its destiny, rendering it inadequate to retain surface water in the long run.
Kun Wang, co-author of the study and an Earth and planetary sciences assistant professor at Washington University, suggests an intrinsic link between rocky planets’ size and their capability to maintain water, enabling habitability and geological processes. The threshold for such characteristics appears to surpass Mars’ dimensions.
Zhen Tian and her team, from the same institution, meticulously analyzed 20 Mars meteorites to unravel the Red Planet’s composition over eons. Their focus was on potassium isotopes, utilizing this element as a marker for volatile elements like water. Intriguingly, Mars, although smaller than Earth, preserved its volatile elements more effectively than smaller celestial bodies like Earth’s moon and the asteroid Vesta.
Katharina Lodders, a research professor of Earth and planetary sciences at Washington University, highlights the enigmatic discrepancy in volatile elements between differentiated planets and primitive undifferentiated meteorites. This finding, correlating potassium isotopic compositions with planet gravity, offers vital insights into how planets accrued and dissipated their volatiles.
Published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, this research underscores the challenges faced by smaller planets in sustaining water and retaining protective magnetic fields. Unlike Earth’s enduring magnetic field generated deep within the planet, diminutive planets face early shutdowns, leading to atmospheric dissipation.
Co-author Klaus Mezger from the University of Bern’s Center for Space and Habitability underscores the study’s relevance in defining the narrow scope wherein planets can sustain a habitable surface environment. These findings could substantially shape the search for habitable exoplanets in other solar systems.
In considering habitability, scientists acknowledge Mars’ potential subsurface aquifers and the likelihood of life-sustaining oceans beneath the icy surfaces of moons like Jupiter’s Europa and Saturn’s Enceladus. These elements add depth to discussions surrounding potential habitable environments beyond Earth.