The chances of being inside a black hole is low, but never zero.

## TL;DR

Physicists have studied the math behind charged black holes within anti-de Sitter space, a theoretical universe with negative curvature. These black holes create a stable quantum field haze around their surfaces, similar to superconductors. Upon entering, the space inside ripples like waves due to oscillating quantum fields, known as Josephson Oscillations. Deeper into the black hole, a fractal universe could emerge, where space stretches and expands endlessly in a surreal pattern. Although no wormholes exist, the research could offer new insights into real-world black holes and potential applications in superconductivity.

Black holes are likely the most mysterious and least understood entities in the universe. With endless possibilities—being linked to phenomena such as wormholes and even the birth of new universes—they have captivated physicists for years.

But while the black holes we know of are strange enough, even weirder varieties could exist. In one hypothetical, inverted version of the universe, there may be a type of black hole stranger than an M.C. Escher drawing. A team of researchers has now delved into the math behind these so-called charged black holes and discovered a host of unexpected outcomes, including a space-time inferno and a bizarre fractal landscape… and potentially more.

## Welcome to a holographic superconductor

There are many potential types of theoretical black holes: some with electrical charges, some spinning, others stationary, and some either surrounded by matter or existing in the void of space. Certain black holes, like rotating ones surrounded by infalling matter, are known to exist in our universe, and we’ve even captured an image of one.

However, other black hole types remain purely theoretical. Nonetheless, physicists are still keen to explore them because studying their mathematical foundations can help reveal new insights into physical theories with real-world implications.

One such theoretical black hole is an electrically charged one, located in a type of space called anti-de Sitter. Without diving into too much complexity, this space has a constant negative curvature, like a horse saddle, which doesn’t align with our universe’s current description. (In an anti-de Sitter universe, with a negative cosmological constant, matter would clump into black holes, in contrast to the accelerating expansion in our universe).

Although this saddle-shaped space doesn’t exist in our universe, it’s still worth exploring these exotic black holes due to their intricate structures.

One reason they’re worth examining is that charged black holes share similarities with rotating black holes (which do exist), but are simpler to study mathematically. By analyzing charged black holes, we can gain new insights into real-world rotating ones.

Additionally, scientists have observed that when these black holes cool, a “haze” of quantum fields forms around their surfaces. This haze is kept in place by the black hole’s gravity but is pushed away by its electric charge. A stable quantum field haze on a surface is also known as a superconductor. Superconductors can transmit electrical currents with no resistance, so studying them in exotic conditions could lead to practical applications.

In an August 28 study posted to the arXiv preprint database, a research team used the principles of superconductivity to uncover what lies deeper within these theoretical black holes.

## The almost-wormhole

“Normal” charged black holes—those surrounded by a typical space-time like that found in our universe—have some peculiar characteristics inside. Beyond their event horizon (the point of no return for anything falling in), lies an inner horizon where intense quantum energies exist. Beyond that, there may be a wormhole—a bridge to a white hole in another part of the universe, according to mathematics.

However, we don’t know if wormholes like this exist in reality, since the math behind charged black holes breaks down at the inner horizon. Until new physics is developed, nothing more can be learned. Thankfully, black holes in anti-de Sitter space, which we’ll call superconductor black holes, bypass this issue.

The good news is that the inner horizon of a superconductor black hole breaks apart smoothly, allowing you to pass through without the extreme stretching, or “spaghettification,” that ordinary black holes cause. The bad news is that the wormhole bridge within these black holes also self-destructs, so you won’t be teleported to distant parts of the universe.

But that doesn’t mean your journey would be uneventful. Just beyond where the inner horizon would have been, the interior of a superconductor black hole becomes quite turbulent.

In real-life superconductors, particles can oscillate, creating waves in a process known as Josephson Oscillations. Inside these black holes, space itself ripples and vibrates. Falling into one would be a wild and bumpy experience.

## A strange universe

After making it through the oscillating space-time, what you encounter next is even more bizarre. The researchers found that the deepest regions of a superconductor black hole could contain a growing miniature universe—a place where space stretches and distorts at varying rates in different directions.

Even stranger, depending on the black hole’s temperature, some parts of this space could trigger new oscillations, leading to new patches of expanding space, which then cause further oscillations, creating more expanding space, and so on. This process could repeat endlessly at progressively smaller scales, forming a fractal universe.

Describing what it would be like to journey through such a landscape is nearly impossible, but it would undoubtedly be surreal.

At the core of this chaotic fractal mess lies the singularity—the point of infinite density where all matter that has ever fallen into the black hole resides.

Unfortunately, despite their advanced superconducting math, the researchers can’t fully explain what happens at the singularity. At that point, all known physics breaks down, and new theories of gravity are needed to comprehend it.

What lies at the heart of a superconductor black hole remains a mystery, but the journey there would be nothing short of extraordinary.