- Proxima Centauri b, the closest known exoplanet to Earth, is showing potential for being “highly habitable,” according to new research.
- Computer simulations indicate that Proxima Centauri b could sustain vast areas of liquid water on its surface, a crucial ingredient for supporting life as we know it.
- Despite being in the habitable zone, this exoplanet is likely tidally locked to its star, always showing the same side to it. Previous models suggested extreme climate differences, but new simulations introduce the concept of a dynamic, circulating ocean.
- The simulations show that a combination of atmospheric and oceanic circulation could maintain a band of liquid water around the equatorial region of the planet, making it more hospitable than previously thought.
- The presence of extensive liquid water increases the chances of finding evidence of life with future telescopes, enhancing the excitement around the potential habitability of Proxima Centauri b.
In a cosmic revelation, Proxima Centauri b, an exoplanet roughly the size of Earth, has emerged as a potential candidate for habitability. Discovered orbiting the closest star to our sun in 2016, the planet’s capacity to sustain life has been a subject of fascination.
Employing computer models akin to those used in climate change studies on Earth, scientists have uncovered that Proxima Centauri b could maintain extensive bodies of liquid water on its surface under a broad spectrum of conditions. This discovery significantly elevates the likelihood of it harboring living organisms.
Proxima Centauri, a diminutive, cool red-dwarf star, lies a mere 4.2 light-years away from our solar system. Despite its proximity, our understanding of its planetary companion, Proxima Centauri b, remains limited. Researchers had to make educated assumptions, postulating the presence of an atmosphere and an ocean on its surface, for their study to progress.
Positioned within its star’s habitable zone, the exoplanet receives just the right amount of starlight to maintain a surface temperature conducive to liquid water. However, its proximity to the star suggests it may be tidally locked, with one side perpetually facing its parent star.
Previous simulations suggested extreme conditions, with a star-facing hemisphere scorching under intense radiation, while the space-facing side remained frozen. This scenario, termed “eyeball Earth,” envisioned a narrow band of potentially habitable area. However, the latest simulations, more comprehensive than their predecessors, incorporated a dynamic, circulating ocean that efficiently transferred heat across the exoplanet. This resulted in a band of liquid water being sustained around the equatorial region, even on the night side.
This heat circulation mechanism is likened to Earth’s own coastal climates, where ocean currents play a vital role in temperature regulation. The researchers conducted 18 separate simulation scenarios, exploring the impact of various factors, including continental landmasses, atmospheric thickness, different compositions, and salt content in the global ocean.
In nearly all models, Proxima Centauri b exhibited open ocean on at least some part of its surface. The larger the fraction of the planet with liquid water, the greater the potential for detecting signs of life with advanced telescopes in the future. This promising revelation opens new avenues for understanding exoplanetary habitability, with next-generation telescopes poised to provide further insights.